Feeding Puppies and Dogs
It’s actually very easy to feed a puppy or a dog correctly, but many people make some quite important mistakes. Why? Read how choosing the wrong ingredients and amounts can affect your dog’s lifespan.
Dogs and humans are both omnivores, so our diets are broadly similar, but there are a few important differences.
Can Dogs & Humans Eat The Same Foods?
No. Dogs have a generally lower tolerance for high levels of fat and meat in the diet, but tolerate carbohydrates well. There are also some specific foods which humans eat which are toxic to dogs. See the list at Dangerous foods for pets and our data on dog poisonings in Adelaide.
How to Feed A Dog In Five Easy Steps
It is possible to make a dog’s diet entirely at home, and it is even possible to make a safe vegetarian diet for dogs. Both of these options are very time consuming, not particularly economical, and in our opinion, never as reliable as the advice to follow.
Step 1: Balanced Commercial Dog Food
Choose a complete, balanced puppy or adult dog food suited to your dog’s lifestage and adult size. You get the peace of mind in knowing it will provide all the major nutrients needed by your dog or puppy in exactly the right balance.
Generally, price is a reasonable guide to the quality of the ingredients and the composition of the diet. A good manufacturer will follow the latest science and understanding of the requirements of dogs, and engage in research, development and testing of their diets in their own dog colonies. You are paying for their expertise.
We recommend either Hills or Royal Canin as companies you can put your trust in. You can also use the expertise of a local pet food manufacturer. These high quality diets require no extra supplements; in fact adding supplements (especially calcium) can unbalance the diet and be dangerous.
Step 2: Fruits & Vegetables
Add a tablespoon per day of fresh fruit or vegetable. This can be any item, and in fact it’s good to vary and experiment with your dog’s tastes. Most people will keep aside a small portion of the veges being chopped for dinner or a slice of their fruit but remember that grapes, onion and garlic are toxic. No starchy vegetables please. Grated carrot is an easy option if nothing else is available.
Similarly, dogs often enjoy nibbling on fresh grass.
Why do we do this? Reduced rates of cancer have been documented in dogs being supplemented with fruit or vegetables and it helps dogs not get fussy. Also, dogs love these, and regard them as treats. Just don’t tell them they’re good for them!
Step 3: Dietary Dental Care
Consider dental hygiene items. We recommend dog be fed raw bones as a regular part of their diet. However, to safely fed dogs bones, you will need specific advice based on a vet’s assessment of your dog’s breed and feeding behaviour. Therefore, do not feed raw bones until you have consulted a veterinarian on this subject.
Other dental hygiene options include Dentastix and Greenies. While probably not as effective as bones, and needing to be fed daily, you can start without first seeing a vet. Then there are a range of good dental diets for adult dogs from Hills and Royal Canin.
Step 4: Fluids
Provide fresh drinking water at all times. You can offer ‘puppy milk’ but never cow’s milk as all dogs are lactose intolerant. Most puppies don’t need milk after 8 weeks of age but it can be useful to help them settle in.
Step 5: Treats for Dogs
Treats don’t have to be bad for your dog, and their tastes are very different from ours. Read our guide to safe and healthy treats for dogs.
Common Mistakes In Feeding Dogs
A mistake owners often make is to think they will improve the diet by adding extra meat. There are three problems with this:
1. Meat off the bone is high in phosphates and lacking in calcium. This will tend to have a depleting effect on the body’s stores of calcium in the bones and may cause major growth problems in puppies.
2. Extra meat is probably unhealthy. It can cause some dogs to be more prone to gastrointestinal upsets such as acute vomiting or diarrhoea, and there is a reported reduction in lifespan with higher meat diets. Dogs are omnivores, not specialised carnivores like cats.
3. Meat is undoubtedly popular to dogs, and so they will tend to start refusing their balanced diet if being fed meat.
Read our perspective on grain free, raw and low carbohydrate canine diets.
A second common mistake is to feed table scraps or leftovers. Once again, these items will create a fussy dog prone to gastrointestinal upsets. Think carefully before doing this as you’ll also have a dog begging for food from family and guests every time they eat.
How to Feed Dogs
How Often To Feed Dogs
Puppies from 8 to 12 weeks should be fed three times a day. From 12 weeks to 6 months they need twice daily feeding. After this time most dogs move to once daily feeding as they do not need or expect to be fed more than once a day. People often react in horror to this suggestion but trust us: after a few days they will forget the second meal and be just as happy.
How Much To Feed Dogs
There is no rule to help you know how much to feed as it varies greatly from dog to dog. Luckily it’s not that hard to work out if you can be logical and unemotional. The trick is not to imagine that the look your dog is giving you means they are feeling ‘hungry’. No, they just want more food; don’t we all? Ask your veterinarian to advise you how to tell when a dog is fat, thin or just right. Then, you select the amount that keeps him or her that way, and adjust the amount fed depending on their body condition. Read more at How to work out how much to feed your dog
Do Dogs Need Variety?
Don’t let advertisers tell you that your dog needs a varied diet. This is only true if you train them that way. A dog is just as happy fed the same food every day as long as you keep their expectations in line with this. However, there is no great problem with variety (other than inconvenience) as long as all the foods are equally good and your dog eats well.
Making Feeding More Fun
There’s no need to feed a dog in a bowl. You can select from a wide variety of creative ways to feed a dog which simultaneously keep them interested or entertained. Let’s face it; in the wild their moose isn’t served in a bowl. There are puzzles, mazes, balls, Bob-a-lots or Kongs to stuff with either their regular meals or specially bought or prepared foods. You can even deliberately hide or bury things as long as you think about the safety and spoilage issues first. Here’s one of our nurses’ recipes for stuffing Kongs or similar hollow toys. You’ll find other food dispensers on our dog toys page.
Kong Stuffing Recipe
There are plenty of good ways to fill Kongs. We’re not too keen on dogs having a lot of peanut butter so this is one of our favourites.
Mix 2 tablespoons bran cereal with 1 teaspoon of melted low salt peanut butter
Add some chopped up apple and carrot bits
Seal one end of the Kong with a small amount of low fat cream cheese and fill with mixture.
Add a few dog kibble and a few almonds or cashews.
Fill up to the top with low salt liquid beef stock, sit upright in a container and seal the end with more cream cheese.