I’ve been a vet for a quarter century now. Over that time I’ve seen just about everything go wrong that can.
Pet disasters tend to go along recurring themes. If you know what they are, you have an excellent chance to avoid them. Some might be upsetting, but I hope you can see the benefit in thinking about them now.
Picture this: it’s 4 o’clock on a Saturday, we’re about to close for the weekend, and a caring local resident brings in a dog they’ve just found wandering the street. We get out the scanner, all set to read the microchip and reunite a dog with his family.
The reason most people can’t kill every last flea is that they are using outdated products. Until the mid 1990s the only products available could not eliminate fleas. Pets with flea allergy kept on suffering. The shocking news is that these products, mainly shampoos, sprays or rinses, are still widely sold, and resistance has only grown.
However, these products aren’t perfect either. Some, like Frontline or Nexgard have been shown to kill fleas more slowly than others (or not at all in the case of Sentinel) and resistance is suspected for others. I haven’t even mentioned Capstar as it’s far too short-acting. Nowadays I get best results with the flea tablets Simparica, Bravecto or Comfortis, and Advantage still works well.
Although the new flea controls are very safe, they remain unpopular with people wanting to get rid of fleas naturally. If you want to do this, it is possible and we’ll support you, but you have to have lower expectations of success.
How To Kill Fleas In The House And Garden
Fleas on the animal are no more that 5% of the total. That other 95% comprises eggs, larvae, pupae and adults waiting to jump. These are found wherever your pet, or any other dog or cat with fleas, has been.
You don’t have to kill all the fleas in the environment to eliminate them. The weak point in the flea life cycle is the need for adults to get a blood meal in order to lay eggs. Therefore if you’re not in a hurry, all you need to do is use a good flea killer on your pet and wait.
However your pets or children may disagree. If infestation levels are high, they will keep getting a lot of bites, even if each flea then dies. You or your family may also be getting nasty itchy welts on the ankles and legs.
That famous jump is how fleas get on passing animals, so unless you keep your dog or cat in a glass box they will keep getting flea hitch-hikers and bringing them home for everybody to enjoy.
The good news is: once you’ve eliminated fleas from your pet and home almost any good flea control will stop reinfestation. You’ve just got to remember to do it. Here’s some suggestions:
Set a monthly recurring reminder on your phone
Use Bravecto (dogs) so you only need to remember once every three months
Buy from friendly local places that send reminder messages (OK, you got me there- that’s a shameless plug!)
Have something to add? Comments are welcome below and will appear within 24 hours of lodging. By Andrew Spanner BVSc(Hons) MVetStud, a vet in Adelaide, Australia. These help topics are from a series regularly posted on email and Twitter. The information provided here is not intended to be used as a substitute for going to the vet. If your pet is unwell, please seek veterinary attention.
Before you have an emergency, it’s good to know which after hours vet is closest and how you will get there in a hurry. There are four veterinary hospitals open 24 hours a day, seven days a week in Adelaide*. We created this clickable map by comparing travel times to each one from various locations. Please use it to get directions to your nearest vet when your regular vet is closed.
Walkerville Vet is open 8am to 6:30pm weekdays and 9am to 1pm Saturdays. Vets start consulting at 9am.
Does your dog need an operation? Want to know what to do when your cat has surgery? How do you prepare rabbits or rodents for an anaesthetic? When the time comes, here’s our guide to how to get your dog, cat, rabbit, ferret, rat or mouse ready for surgery. There’s also a guide to what to do for dogs and cats after surgery.
This adorable kelpie cross came to me last week for his ten week puppy vaccination. Most of you already know that we can give a final puppy vaccine at 10 weeks of age which allows puppies to go out at 11 weeks of age.
The problem was, when I looked at his file, he was 9 weeks and 6 days old: one day early.
What’s the problem? It’s only one day early!
I really want you to know the answer; I promise it will be worth it. Once you understand, you’ll know how vaccines work and how they are developed and tested for your pet.
Maternally Derived Antibody is a natural system developed in animals to provide early protection. In the first day of life, the mother’s milk contains high levels of antibodies, and the new puppy or kitten has the ability for these to pass straight from the gut to the bloodstream.
We call this Passive Immunity and it’s essential for animals to survive their first few weeks.
The problem is that it interferes with vaccination. That’s why we can’t give vaccines early even if we want to.
Different vaccines have different abilities to overcome passive immunity, and that’s why you hear all sorts of recommendations for when your puppy or kitten should get their shots.
The thing is though, nothing in nature is predictable. The loss of maternal ability will follow a pattern like I’ve pictured here. Using puppies as an example, some (red arrow) lose protection early, and some (green arrow) late.
BUT we have to protect 100% of the puppies we see. If we knew when the MDA wore off we’d do it at the earliest possible for each puppy.
Since we don’t, we have to choose an age when we can say all puppies will develop protective immunity after vaccination. That’s at the time of the green arrow.
For our vaccine that’s 10 weeks of age. The problem is, we only know this because the manufacturer has tested the vaccine in exactly this way.
They never tested the vaccine at every age, and we have no way of knowing if 100% are still protected at 9 weeks and 6 days.
The dates are very strict
We can be just as happy if the puppy is older than 10 weeks, just not any younger.
We’re so nervous about puppies going out before their final vaccination. For the final vaccine to ‘take’, there always has to be a gap where the puppy has lost their immunity, and in some pups it can be up to four weeks.
The same is true for cats.
Now let’s look at adult dogs and cats. Once again, immunity will wear off at some time, and the graph will look much the same. Once again, our job is that no animal is left unprotected, so we have to give the booster at a time when no dog or cat has yet lost immunity.
That’s the red arrow. As you can see, most pets will lose the immunity much later. The problem is, if we try to predict this, some animals will be at risk, and the consequences could be terrible.
The vaccine schedules we use are designed to make the time between vaccinations as long as possible without any animals being put at risk.
Our vaccine schedules are therefore quite complicated. You’ll find the complete guidelines for Walkerville Vet at Vaccination Explained page. There’s a quick summary for adult animals at the end of this article.
What else is done to make vaccines work?
Development and testing: All vaccines in order to achieve registration for legal use in Australia are required to have their safety and efficacy proven in clinical trials. Once in use, any adverse effects or vaccine failures are reported to the same registering body, who can revoke licensing if necessary.
Correct storage: Have you heard of the ‘cold chain’? This refers to the correct transportation and storage of vaccines to ensure they remain effective. We use a local supplier to ensure rapid transit times and have specialised vaccine chillers to hold them at the correct temperature. Thats one on the wall behind me.
Choosing the right patient: Last week (and above) I talked about when we do not vaccinate your pet. This is important both for their health and for the vaccine to work properly.
Correct use: We have correct handling and administration guidelines which I’m always happy to explain as I do it.
By Andrew Spanner BVSc(Hons) MVetStud, a vet in Adelaide, Australia. These blogs are from a series regularly posted on email and Twitter. Subscribe via email here to never miss a story! Have something to add? Comments are welcome below and will appear within 24 hours of lodging.