We Need To Talk: Anxiety Medications In Dogs

Updated March 18, 2021

No one wants to drug their pets. I get that. But we need to talk about mental health.

cat anxiety treatment

Let’s start by throwing out all the weasel words that stop us seeing it for what it is. It isn’t a ‘behaviour problem’ except to us. All these concerns like destruction, whining, howling, barking, biting or escaping. They’re only symptoms of a much greater problem.

The Whining Dog

Tassie is a good example. She was rescued from the lands to the north and is in a lot of trouble. At the shelter she was on medication to help her adjust but now that she’s in a loving home, she’s just not coping.

One of the neighbours, bless ‘em, has already sent anonymous letters and the council around due to the noise. Now it’s an emergency. Tassie has nowhere else to go and it’s only a matter of time until an enforceable order is issued.

As an aside, to any neighbours of noisy dogs reading this, I have lived near them too and I really do sympathise, but this isn’t the way. You’re unnecessarily putting lives at risk. Please try to talk to the owners first before involving the authorities. Most people will seek help if they only know how bad the problem is.

The Number One Mental Illness

But what is the problem? It isn’t the noise or the destroyed door frames. It’s the terrible anxiety Tassie experiences whenever she‘s left alone. And like most mental illnesses left untreated, it’s getting worse, not better.

So here are the two major points:

  1. The suffering experienced by anxious dogs is a serious welfare issue
  2. She needs medication

Are you shocked by how quickly I started Tassie on fluoxetine? You shouldn’t be. The perfect world where she normalises with behavioural therapy alone isn’t available to her. She’s too severely affected and there’s no time.

We all know people who have benefited from  anxiety medications. Why, then, is there still so much resistance to treating suffering dogs the same way?

What Anxiety Meds Do in Dogs

Here’s what we expect from a long-term anxiety medication: it should produce no visible changes in a dog’s nature except to modify her anxiety. It certainly won’t sedate her in any way. If she sleeps more, it’s only because now she can.

Sometimes we also add situational anxiety medications like gabapentin, clonidine or trazodone. These are especially useful for predictable, short-term causes of anxiety like car travel, trips to the vet or visitors.

Behaviour-modifying drugs should be harmless, or we’ll stop them. We’ll watch their visible effects, and monitor blood test results to make sure of this, but these are some of the safest drugs we have.

The effect of fluoxetine will start to appear in a week and reach full effect after four weeks. We’ll also use an Adaptil pheromone collar for added benefit even though the effects are mild. You could add a Thundershirt or natural remedies too, but I don’t see these work on their own.

Medication Alone Isn’t Enough

Medication is only half the story though. Sometimes I can’t be sure from my one-off assessment in a stressful environment that medication is really the solution. Even when I am, I know that on its own medication will do some good, but not enough. By blocking anxiety, SSRIs also open a window so that longer-term treatments can work.

So I always insist on the help of an expert in the area where I’m not. Sometimes I won’t even start medication until they agree with me. They aren’t all that expensive, they double the benefit of medication, and give a realistic hope that the drugs can be tapered off some day.

Experts aren’t in the business of telling you what you want to hear, though. They will no doubt ask you to do some work. They may also find fault with your home environment.

If this bothers you, you’re not alone.

Finding The Right Advice

Here’s a current example. There are still a lot of professional dog trainers in Adelaide who are stuck in the old ‘your dog is trying to dominate you’ school. This flies in the face not only of common sense but also of positive trainers clearly getting better results.

Why don’t they accept the evidence? Probably pride, but also a natural resistance to change. I’ve been forced to confront some of my own outdated ideas, and even for me (as a non-expert) it isn’t easy. I can see why they find it very hard.

But I digress. The core message is this: if you have any dog with a ‘behaviour problem’, seek help. And if some of that help comes in the form of medication, keep an open mind. Ask how important it is, but don’t feel that it’s such a big step.

Anxiety meds are just tools to get the job done. And boy, does your dog need you to.

Related: Separation anxiety | Compulsive disorders | Excessive barking | Noise Phobia

Have something to add? Comments (if open) will appear within 24 hours.
By Andrew Spanner BVSc(Hons) MVetStud, a vet in Adelaide, Australia. Meet his team here. The information provided here is not intended to be used as a substitute for going to the vet. If your pet is unwell, please seek veterinary attention.

19 Replies to “We Need To Talk: Anxiety Medications In Dogs”

  1. What symptoms are serious enough to consider starting anti anxiety medication? Does there have to be destruction, or howling/barking? My 5 year old rescue dog will get up from sleep to check out any strange noises, runs away from clanging noises like the dishwasher being emptied or pots and pans on the stove. She used to be small-dog reactive on walks (she has attacked by a few dachshunds and chihuahuas) but has improved with help from our dog behaviourist.

    She eats and sleeps all right, doesn’t excessively bark and is not destructive. I just want to know if she’s happy and should I do more?

    1. Hi Janey. Two reasons for medication would be: if the problem is getting worse, to avoid this happening, or if a dog seems to have poor quality of life, or quality of life that can be improved. On this latter point, it’s very hard for anyone, except an owner to judge what this might be.

  2. At least your neighbour gave you a letter. Someone called the council for exactly the same thing with my dog. They also lied and said they had spoken to me and gave me a letter. I was so upset, as you were.

  3. Very interesting article. We adopted our dog 1.5 years ago and he has separation anxiety and generalised anxiety. He’s presently on a Fluoxetine, Clonidine & Gabapentin. He was doing well up until a few weeks ago, and has now become very anxious again and also aggressive towards us, including biting us. Is it possible for dogs to build up a tolerance to these medications? The change in his behaviour has been quite sudden. Thanks.

    1. Hi Simon. I’m sure there are many opinions on this, but my feeling is that other explanations need to be ruled out first. I would definitely get a behaviourist involved.

      1. Great job! Get back in touch with him or her as it can’t be managed online with these sorts of situations.

  4. Brilliant article! Thanks for posting. My dog has been on fluoxetine and trazadone for 4 years. It’s expensive but it gave me and Noodle’s life back! About to take her back as she’s seemingly a bit more meds resistant these days. Do you sometimes switch things around in these cases like a Psych would either people? I’m hoping so 🙂

    1. Thanks Tiff. We do switch things around, but also try to resist the temptation to keep adding more drugs as sometimes there is a simpler solution elsewhere.

  5. My Australian bobtail Shepard/kelpie has anxiety would like a calming tablet for her what shell I do and which medication to ask for at my vet only the very best and strong medication dosage ??? Please can you advise me thanks Connie

    1. Hi Constance. There are many choices and some variation between countries, so I’m sorry but the decision has to be made by your vet.

  6. Thanks for this info, Andrew,

    We had our first night’s sleep last night, having bought and used some Adaptil at the local pet shop.

    Pico is a neutered male c. 4yr old Yorkie/Silkie cross, rescued from a puppy farm 5 months ago.

    He’s TOTally adorable, and seems to have a mission to spread smiling among humans as often as possible.

    He has a big brother, an 18yr old Maltese/Shi Tzu, Benny. They get on WONderfully play fighting and copying lots of Benny’s good habits.

    He’s never been house trained, though we SEEM to be getting there on that one.

    He’s been a really bad night barker, and has had many face to face meetings with the possum that overnights in the back and front garden.

    Thinking of trying a shirt, too, and some anti anxiety training with Doggy Dan, which might help him control his own anxiety.

    Even if it’s only the Adaptil that works, it’s a SERious bonus.

  7. My disabled daughter has now finally received permission for a dig so he’d mother gave her the French poodle as over the past four years the dog has loved Kaylee when she visits. So now the fog Ruby and Kaylee are living together all all well except when Kaylee goes to part time job. Because Kaylee takes public transport she is gone from 1030 to 4 pm four days a week. Today neighbours complained that Ruby is crying and whining, so she is at risk of getting kicked out if she can’t sort her out. I have worked out her behaviour over five days and I’m positive it’s separation anxiety as she is fine once Kaylee is home Ruby is otherwise a very social dog for humans and barks at other dogs but not aggressive… bought a camera inside so we can watch her behaviour while gone and a diffuser that is meant to help. I want her to go try medication for anxiety if we can’t stop her whining

  8. Thanks for your article. I have been wondering about talking to our vet about anxiety medication for my rescue dog. She’s 3, a Kelpie cross and we have had her for nearly 2 years. We have an older calm dog which is great for her. We have managed her separation anxiety with strategies from dog trainers – She has a lifetime membership so we go regularly. She is scared of other dogs and going for walks is a stressful time although she loves going for walks! She is very reactive to other dogs and is startled easily by bicycles riding past, mums with prams etc. She will mostly bark and appear aggressive but sometimes will actually freeze and not want to move. She seems to be in a heightened state most of the term and at these times we’ve also noticed her heart rate increases dramatically. We want to help her but are not sure what to do next. Do you think we should approach our vet ? Sorry for the massive story!

    1. Hi Melissa. The first thing I would do is talk it over with a trainer who works regularly with dogs receiving medication. Hopefully that’s the one you already use. Then, if they also agree, I would certainly talk to your vet about a trial. The only reason I’m a little hesitant is that you will need someone judging the results away from the clinic as the vets can only see snapshots of the problem.

  9. I can’t tell you how reassuring and pertinent this article was. I received an “anonymous” letter from a neighbour complaining that my dog had been howling during the day – the letter insinuated I knew and was allowing him to suffer when infact I had NO IDEA as he was demonstrating these behaviours when I went to work. I felt terrible and immediately started sourcing help – I now have a session with an animal behaviourist organised, purchased Adaptil collar, diffuser and spray, have a vet appointment with the vet suggested by the behaviourist, scheduled doggy daycare while my dog and I work to treat our issues and am currently trialling Zylkene until a suitably prescribed anti-anxiety regimen can be formalised. I would urge anyone who is being disturbed by a dogs howling and barking etc to please approach their neighbour and tell them that it is occurring – most people who genuinely love their animal will be devastated ( as I was) to imagine their fur baby is upset or distressed and will do all they can to help them. The letter I received indicated my dog had been struggling for months – I wish someone had just told me. This article gave practical advise and provided such comfort that my dog and I can live peacefully and happily – even if I’m not with him.

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