What Cat Lovers Should Know About Scottish Folds

Updated April 13, 2021

If you have a Scottish Fold and this is the first time you are hearing of their problems, you are not to blame. Finding good information before you get a cat is not easy, as you have probably learned by now.

Nearly any online guide only contains the positive information. A breeder only gives more of the same. As far as everyone is concerned, Scottish Folds are adorable and live long, healthy lives. That’s why so many good, kind people get them.

What Vets Say

My golly they are adorable, but that’s far from the whole story. Ask any vet who’s seen a lot of the breed, and especially any feline specialist. They’ll tell you that most Scottish Folds live in chronic pain, all because their looks have been given priority over their health.

The fact that there’s a debate at all speaks volumes about how bad we are at seeing pain in animals. There’s no doubt that just like I was once, many breeders don’t know what chronic pain looks like. Not the “ow, you stepped on my toe” of acute pain, the slow ache of joints that hurt to move.

The pain we’re talking about manifests as cats that just stay put. They don’t move as much or as far. They don’t even complain in any way you can tell.

Why Scottish Folds Have Health Problems

Folds develop joint pain and stiffness due to a genetic disease called osteochondrodysplasia. It causes the visible folding of ear cartilage, but also invisible abnormalities of cartilage and bone throughout the body. This is especially severe in the elbow and hock joints.

The picture at the start shows the typical appearance of the hocks (i.e. ankles) of a middle-aged cat. You can see severe arthritis, and thickened bone around the hock joint. The elbows look very similar.

Problems start early if recognised by astute owners. Just the other day I saw a Fold barely over one year old who had already become quiet and less active. Some may consider that normal for the breed but of course it shouldn’t be.

scottish fold sitting

Just look at all the pictures of Folds in abnormal postures like here. We need to stop seeing this as cute and see it for what it really is.

These problems lead to others. Folds are truly lovely cats, but as a vet I’ll tell you they rarely tolerate blood sampling, probably because it hurts to hold their legs. They are also known as high shedders, which I suspect is due to their grooming being uncomfortable or difficult.

Can Scottish Folds Be Bred Ethically?

Cat breeders often say that all we need to do is breed a fold to a non-fold cat, so that the offspring have only one abnormal gene. This is false. As long as a cat has a folded ear, by definition the defect is active.

The genetic mutation is autosomal dominant, and so carriers of one gene are still affected. The only benefit of such a pairing is that some kittens will not carry the mutated gene at all. These have normal ears and are often called Scottish Shorthair.

Due to the abnormality being much more than just visual, the Scottish Fold is banned by the British Governing Council of the Cat Fancy and the Fédération Internationale Féline. I never saw it in the UK, but it has taken off in Asia, the USA and Australia where no such restrictions occur. This is despite the clear stance of the RSPCA:

RSPCA Australia believes it is unethical to breed from animals with a genetic mutation that is known to cause painful deformities and disease.

Source: What are the health problems with Scottish Fold cats?

Treatment Of Scottish Fold Problems

Quality of life for most Scottish Folds improves dramatically with treatment. Therefore, do not despair or feel guilty. Instead, seek your vet’s advice.

They may see your cat and say everything’s OK. However, if a discussion reveals your cat to be less active than expected, treatment is likely to bring benefit.

Most Folds I see do extremely well on a very simple and inexpensive anti-inflammatory called meloxicam. It’s easy to give and usually well-tolerated. Once we start, we like to keep an eye on the liver and kidneys, however the most common problem is a gastrointestinal upset.

I know that in the USA meloxicam is only licensed for short-term use, but vets in Australia and elsewhere can use it for far longer periods. I have kept many Scottish Folds on it trouble free from youth through to old age. Not because I wanted to, but because they were clearly happier when I did.

overweight scottish fold

If this isn’t possible there are other treatments that can work, listed here. It’s worth persisting simply because the results can be so good. Controlling a cat’s weight is important too. The Fold pictured here is distressingly overweight and once again I have to ask: ‘is this posture cute or troubling?’

Yes, I’m frustrated at how the breed is promoted, but I won’t take it out on you. Together, we can make your Scottish Fold live a life that’s just as happy as any other cat’s.

Related: My Views On The Munchkin Breed & Grumpy Cat

(And just a little update: the young Fold I mentioned earlier came back 2 weeks later a whole new cat. He was happy, back to his old self again, and would even let us hold his leg to take a second blood sample without complaint!)

Have something to add? Comments (if open) will appear within 24 hours.
By Andrew Spanner BVSc(Hons) MVetStud, a vet in Adelaide, Australia. Meet his team here.

33 Replies to “What Cat Lovers Should Know About Scottish Folds”

  1. Hi, my beloved Scottish fold recently died, unexpectedely (9 yrs old), here is not the place to express my grief. But i just want some answers. He was with ears not completely folded but rather straight. He died after a long scream and his mouth was full of liquid with blood. Terrifying, I couldn’t bear. When doctors saw him there was nothing they could but they also couldn’t explain. He’s always had chronic rhinithis and from time to time he was sneezing with some liquid but vets told us he will always be like that. I am in terrible pain after losing him.

  2. My fold is just 6 months old ! After reading your article I am so heartbroken at what age these issues starts ? And what supplements I should give him!

    1. Hi Nadz. Just keep getting regular checks with your vet and pay attention to any changes in mobility.

    2. We have a 16 week old SF. He’s showing no signs of any issues with regards to this. They say SF kittens start to show signs at 7 weeks. Ours does have the folded ears, and I can feel his joints are different to our other cats. I’d advise to just keep an eye on your kitty as we will be doing with ours 🙂

  3. First of all, thank you for this wonderful article. Can the disease increase in a cat that is half Scotch and the other half Himalayan?

    1. Hi Marwa. The disease is generally reduced or even absent in crossbreeds depending on their genetics.

  4. Thank you so much for this article!
    Our Scottish fold is now 1 y 2 m old and he suddenly started limping. He was never too crazily active also, comparing to my previous cats, but I thought that’s a breed trait. So, vet prescribed him 4 doses of meloxicam, and he is doing better today, but I have a feeling they are not too experienced with Scottish folds (we are in Asia). Would you advise on any vitamins or food supplements for that breed, in addition to anti-inflammatory meds?

    1. Hi Lena. I’m not aware of any other treatments, but I’m open to them being tried if they do no harm.

  5. Hello, thank you for the interesting article. I’m thinking of adopting a scottish straight. Do straights have the same health conditions the folds have ?

    1. We have a Scottish straight who is 8.5 yrs old and she suddenly in the last few days started showing symptoms.

  6. Thank you for writing this article. I know it’s been awhile ago, but I stumbled upon it and wanted to comment.

    In 2015 I adopted a long haired tortoiseshell cat from my shelter. She didn’t jump and I was aware she had some issues – I thought solely because she was previously obese. Over the years her mobility issues progressed and she developed severe arthritis. She passed away in April at the age of about 14. I was devastated, we were extremely bonded.

    Fast forward to now – I was looking at potentially adopting another adult kitty, to be a companion for my other cat. This one has folded ears. She was previously a breeder cat and the breeder needs to rehome her. I started researching the breed and am just now realizing I am now 100% positive my beloved Tortie was a Scottish Straight. I never thought about her condition being breed associated because of her straight ears.

    After witnessing this first hand myself I cannot go down that road again. It is absolutely heartbreaking. I hope you’ll continue to spread the word about these genetic problems so that people are aware before purchasing one of these kittens. I did the best I could with mine and she had a very full/happy/loved life – however, I would not willingly choose to bring a kitten into my family with the potential to have these issues.

  7. Hi, could you tell me how many cats did you observe? Did you know pedigree of these cats? Do you have any links for publicatons about you writing about?

  8. I’m sitting here crying because I just got 2 kitties, one with folded ears, and I’m distraught over the fact that one might be in pain her whole life. Thank you for trying to absolve me at the beginning of your article. I’ve reached out to my vet to see what the treatment is in Canada.
    Truly distressing me 🙁

  9. Hello, thank you for this article! I’m reading it feeling so stupid and worried. I was always thinking it’s the scottish fold’s character traits to often stay put, be lazy, calm, etc. My cat is 9 years old, has straight ears. From quite early age he became, how to say… calculating his moves. He started to play less, if he does, he gets tired or bored soon, he rarely jumps up somewhere higher than 20cm. What can I do to know if he needs help? Would xray already show the issue? Maybe try to give him anti-inflammatory and see how it goes? He was sick twice, once caught cold, another time urinary retention due to “sand”in his bladder. Please advise here

    1. Hi Linda. Talk to your vet – they may advise either a treatment trial with meloxicam or another anti-inflammatory, or suggest x-rays first. Either way, it’s good to think that you can help.

  10. I got an adorable female kitten scottish fold 2 days ago. I took her today to her first vet consultation and it turned out to be catastrophic…. my vet was extremely negative about my cat future. Severe health issues, joint problems, etc… I’m devastated and can’t give up on her as I’m already attached to my adorable kitten. The breeder said he can take her back but it’s too hard… can I give her the anti-inflammatory meloxicam at a young age. Will this reduce her probability of her developing severe health issues and let her lives happy life with us? Please you’re my only hope…

    1. Hi Maia. While I understand your vet’s concern, I do find that these cats do very well on meloxicam and can live to a normal lifespan with good quality of life. They usually don’t need it until at least a year of age but it’s best to be guided by their mobility. They should show similar mobility to other cats or I would be suspicious they need treatment.

  11. Hi Andrew my Son’s purchaced me a scotish fold kiten after loosing my Burmese of 18x years. My son done a job for a man who’s cat had 2 kittens & thought it a lovely Christmas present for me. Blue (his Name) has a short thick stomp of a tail & he meows when you pick him up or touch his tail. I researched the breed & learnt to late that they come with a lot of health issues with regards to their joints. Had I known this I would never had let my son’s purchase him . Reading your article on the breed makes me feel terrible as a cat owner & concerned for his quality of life. What would you recommend for me to make blue’s life as Comfortable as I can & pain free. He is just over 3 months & I have already noticed he is not as playful as a kitten should be at his age.

    1. Hi Susan. The best thing to do is to consult with a vet experienced with the breed, which is most of them. These cats do best on everyday pain control but what is available will depend on your region.

    2. You are blessed with this kitten give it all the love he needs ♡. I got mine without knowing this. I found out 6 years later they may have health issues when my cat became very poorly. He was fine before. Now we treat him with cold laser and give him supplements for his joints and he is a happy active ball of fur 🙂 ♡

  12. Hi Andrew, what a great article you have written. I have a Scottish Fold names Carrot. It is a female and will be one years old on Jan 11th, 2022. She used to be very mobile but recently she started hobbling as if she jumped from a high place and landed badly (we have a high bed which she loves to spend time in so figured this was the cause). Took her to our vet and we found no issues (x-rays came back well). This is the second scottish fold the vet is seeing and i am not sure if they are aware of her issues. The vet gave her anti inflammatory medication for 3 days and she improved. Now however she is back to hobbling! Also her character has changed and now she is a bit of a complainer/aggressive with us. What do you suggest we do? I was thinking about taking her back to the vet but i would like to see what you suggest first so i can deliver the message to our local vets. Appreciate your guidance!

    1. Hi Ozgun. I’m sorry to hear about your kitty. This is an extremely common scenario, and in the early stages the x-rays will not show anything significant. Although advice from a distance can be unreliable, if she’s like the folds I see, she will do best staying on an anti-inflammatory treatment permanently. This usually restores a normal quality of life, but does require ongoing monitoring, especially of kidney function. My experience though is it is extremely safe if done properly and not particularly expensive. I generally use meloxicam and in the early years the dose can often be below normal dosing levels while still being effective.

  13. hi, i barely just bought a fold cat age 1y 2m old.

    he’s very healthy now. what can i do to give him the best and happy healthy Life like the other cats ?

    1. Hi Bunga. The best you can do is have regular checkups with your vet and keep an eye on mobility around the house, especially ability to jump up on objects. If you see this reducing, see your vet. I’m not aware of any treatments that will delay progression of the underlying defect.

  14. Hi Andrew,
    Many thanks for your article.
    I am considering getting a Scottish straight kitten. The parents are a Scottish fold and a Scottish straight (straight ears). Since the Scottish straight kitten only has straight ears, does that mean that he’s not affected by the defective gene and associated health problems of arthritis, thickened bones, painful stiff tail?

    1. Hi Shawn. My understanding is that if the defect is carried as a recessive trait (which will be hard to tell) there will still be some bone disease, but it will be less severe.

  15. I had a fold cat for 19 years. She died last summer due to kidney failure.
    Unlike most of you, my cat wasn’t neither a scottish, nor a pedigree cat. Just a moggy who happened to have folded ears.
    I was searching for a black cat, and my aunt’s feral cat got kittens, among those there was a chubby cat with jet black hair.
    Her ears remained folded longer that what happens commonly in cat, and even if they straightened up, they were small, thick and the eartip was completely folded down.
    The father might have been a scottish fold, or my cat got a genetic mutation like Susie.
    My cat had arthritis from the age of 11. At this age is common for straight cat too. However her arthritis was rather painful and when temperatures were extremely cold, she couldn’t move. During the rest of the year she was relatively active.
    At the age of 19 her feet started to appear deformed, but her tail remained flexible for her whole life.

  16. Hi Andrew, hi everyone,
    I am the owner of this young Fold that was mentioned above.It was a sad story about painful joins of my wonderful 1,5 y.o Fold Kuzya but luckily, it ended up happily on Andrew’s hands at Walkerville.
    Thank you very much, dear Andrew for your confidence, knowledge and professionalism to bring my lovely Kuzya to his normal itself.
    Everything in Andrew’s article is the absolutely truth.
    Unfortunately, I thought ( like many of Scottish Fold owners) I knew about this type of cats everything but… wasn’t ready to the reality.
    They are excellent type of cats, no doubt, but probably, that’s better to think twice and get much information before buying them

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